BHARATA (NATYA-SASTRA DE)

BHARATA (NATYA-SASTRA DE)
BHARATA (NATYA-SASTRA DE)

BH RATA N レYA- ご STRA DE

Héros éponyme de l’Inde, fils du roi Dushyanta (ou Dushmanta), de la dynastie «lunaire» des Pauravas, et de la belle Shakuntala, fille de l’ermite Vishvamitra, Bh rata aurait été suivant la tradition le premier souverain universel de l’Inde. Ses trois «fils», ou descendants par Shantanu roi d’Hastin pura, sont: Dhritar shtra, dit Kuru, né aveugle, P ndu, le «pâle», et le sage Vidura. Des deux premiers sont issus les cent frères «Kourouïdes» (Kauravya) et les cinq frères «P ndouïdes» (P ndava), dont la guerre est l’objet de l’épopée sanskrite du Mah bh rata, c’est-à-dire la «Grande [Guerre] des Bh ratas». Par extension, le nom de ce clan védique est appliqué à tous les habitants de l’Inde, qui sont donc des «Bh ratas», et le pays entier est dit le Bh ratamandala (ou Bh ratavarsha: l’«empire de Bh rata», la «terre des Bh ratas»). Aujourd’hui «Bh rat» est le nom officiel de l’Inde (article 1er de la Constitution de la République). D’autres personnages, plus ou moins historiques, reçurent aussi le nom de Bh rata: le demi-frère de R ma, héros de l’épopée du R mayana, ainsi que l’auteur sanskrit du N tya-Sh stra , dit Bh rat 稜ya .

Encyclopédie Universelle. 2012.

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